Definitions of force, work, power; energy efficiency; energy content of food; direct and indirect calorimetry; respiratory quotient; energy cost of locomotion; energy balance; energy reserves (carbohydrates, fats, proteins); carbohydrate intake in relation to the exercise; water supplies; anaerobic and aerobic cellular energy metabolism; capacity and power of anaerobic energy mechanisms; limiting factors anaerobic energy mechanisms; types of muscle fibers; production and removal of lactic acid in the blood; anaerobic threshold; capacity and power of the aerobic energy mechanisms; factors limiting energy aerobic mechanisms; oxygen debt.Definition of doping.
Generalities on the levers; muscle strength; types of muscle contraction; force-velocity curve; elastic elements in series and parallel; structure of the sarcomere; length-tension curve; eccentric contraction and mechanical stress of the ultrastructural protein; delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS); determinants of muscle strength.
Definition of motor units; types of motor unit: biochemical and functional differences.
Types of movement; classification of nerve fibers; definition and components of the reflex; nociceptive reflex; opening reflex; proprioception; muscle spindles; static and dynamic response of the spindles; alpha, beta and gamma motor neurons; Golgi tendon organs; stretch reflex and reciprocal inhibition; closing reflex; autologous inhibition by OTG; muscle and joint stiffness.
Elastic and visco-elastic properties of biological tissues; types of stretching (ballistic, dynamic, static, PNF); role of proprioceptors in the adaptation to muscle stretch.
Exercise associated muscle cramps: assumptions about the genesis.
Outline of motor cortical areas; corticospinal tract; programming of movement; feedback and feedforward control; extrapyramidal system; cyclical automatic movement (chewing and walking).
Role of the striatum, globus pallidus, sustantia nigra and the subthalamic nucleus; circuits involving the basal ganglia; hypokinetic and hyperkinetic disorders related to alterations of the basal ganglia.
Morpho-functional organization of the cerebellum; Basic cerebellar circuits; cerebellar symptoms.
Postural control: role of the spinal cord and higher centers; center of mass and center of pressure; postural adjustment mode; joint stability: gender differences; musculoskeletal pain and movement.
General information on the cardiovascular system; the cardiac cycle; heart sounds.
Generalities on the membrane potential; the cardiac action potential; potential pacemaker; influence of the autonomic nervous system; action potential of the cardiac muscle; ion channels.
Derivations: peripheral and precordial, analysis on frontal and horizontal plane; analysis of the ECG waves: P-QRS-T; functioning of the conduction system: pacemaker and pulse spread in the heart;. Stroke volume and cardiac output; Frank-Starling law; pressure-volume curve; blood pressure; measurement of blood pressure; regulation in short-term: baroreceptors; regulation in the long term: ADH and angiotensin. Principles of Doppler echocardiography; informations obtained from a clinical echocardiography. The athlete's heart: comparison with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.