The course deals with the anthropological roots of the political dimension. It covers four areas, closely linked one to each other: 1) The ‘Political’: relationship between "friend" and "enemy" in C. Schmitt's theory. 2) Mass and conflict. The concept of mass in Freud and Canetti. 3) Intraspecific aggressiveness in the perspective of Ethology and Sociobiology: Lorenz, Eibl-Eibesfeldt, E.O. Wilson. 4) Theories about the sources of society from violence and the 'Sacred' in R. Girard.