Cellular Pathology-The role of HSPs in cellular stress. Cell Adaptation Mechanisms: Hypertrophy/ Hyperplasia, Atrophy and Metaplasia. Morphological alterations in reversible cell injury and necrosis. Cell injury mechanisms: ATP depletion, mitochondrial damage, alteration of calcium homeostasis, formation of free oxygen radicals, membrane permeability defects, DNA alterations and protein misfolding. Description of cell damage and necrosis induced by: ischemia/ hypoxia, oxidative stress, ischemia/ reperfusion and chemicals. Apoptosis: morphological and biochemical modifications. Apoptosis in physiological and pathological conditions. Necroptosis, pyroptosis and autophagy. Intracellular accumulation of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and pigments. Steatosis and alcohol metabolism, lysosomal diseases, glycogenosis and hemochromatosis. Extracellular accumulation: Amyloidosis (β-fibrillosis). Amyloidosis classification Inflammation.Definition and general characteristics of inflammation.
Inflammation receptors. Inflammatory mediators (Hageman factor, Kinins, complement and coagulation system, vasoactive amines, arachidonic metabolites, NO, cytokines and chemokines). Inflammasome and auto-inflammatory diseases.
Dynamics of the acute inflammatory process: hemodynamic changes and increase in permeability. The cells of the inflammatory process: recruitment and microbicidal mechanisms. Defects of phagocytosis. Differences between exudate and trasudate. Classification of exudates. From acute to chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation: causes, characteristics and cell types involved. Interstitial and granulomatous inflammation.
Pathogenesis of granulomas. Systemic manifestations of the inflammatory process: leukocytosis and acute phase proteins.
Tissue Repair, Regeneration and Fibrosis
Mechanisms of tissue regeneration: liver regeneration
The repair process: angiogenesis, fibroblast proliferation and remodeling.
Healing of skin wounds and myocardial infarction. Scar formation alterations.Fibrosis Pathophysiology
-Pathophysiology of thermoregulation: hypothermia, hyperthermia and fever
Hereditary febrile syndromes. Different types of fever
-Edema.Causes and Mechanisms of Edema formation. Local and systemic edemas.
Differences between inflammatory and non-inflammatory edema.
-Pathophysiology of lipid metabolism
Atherosclerosis: risk factors and pathogenesis. Atherosclerosis evolution. Unifying theory: Atherosclerosis as a chronic inflammatory response. Consequences of atherosclerosis
-General pathophysiology of hemostasis
Hemorrhagic diseases dependent on vascular, platelet and coagulation factor alterations
Thrombosis: Definition and pathogenesis. Venous, arterial and cardiac thromboses.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (CID)
-Pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system
Active and passive hyperemia
Embolism: pulmonary, systemic and paradoxical. The various types of embolisms.
Local ischemia. Causes and pathogenesis of ischemic damage. The heart attack.
Shock: pathogenesis. Cardiogenic, hypovolemic, distributive and septic shock
Alteration of blood pressure