- Endogenous causes of illness. Pathological inheritance, chromosomal abnormalities and congenital malformations. Molecular basis of genetic diseases. Multi-factorial diseases.
- Exogenous causes of diaeases. Chemical causes (environmental, professional, and dietary factors, xenobiotics and their bio-transformation); physical causes (radiation, temperature, electricity and ultrasound); infectious causes (transmission and dissemination of microbes, host damage mechanisms).
CELLULAR PATHOLOGY and TISSUE HOMEOSTASIS
- Degenerative processes of cells and organelles: intracellular accumulations of lipids, proteins, glycogen and pigments; extracellular accumulations: amyloidosis.
- Alterations of glucose metabolism: etiopathogenesis of diabetes mellitus.
- Alterations of lipid metabolism: hyper- and hypo-lipoproteinemias.
- Hypertrophy and atrophy; senile atrophy and cellular aging.
- Reversible cell damage, and cell death: apoptosis and necrosis.
- Main degenerative processes of connective tissues; causes and mechanisms of fibrosis.
- Dynamics of acute inflammation: alterations of microcirculation and formation of exudate.
- Mediators of inflammation: plasma proteins-derived and cell-derived mediators. Inflammatory cells; microbicidal mechanisms of phagocytes.
- Different types of angioflogosis; evolution of acute inflammation.
- Chronic inflammation: interstitial or granulomatous; etiopathogenesis of most common granulomas.
- General characteristics of neoplastic growth.
- Classification criteria and nomenclature.
- Differential characteristics of benign and malignant tumors.
- Morphological and metabolic atypia.
- Molecular basis of neoplastic transformation: protoncogenes, oncogenes, and tumor suppressor genes.
- Carcinogenesis: chemical, physical and viral causes; hereditary tumors; multi-step carcinogenesis.
- Biological bases of invasiveness and metastasis; routes of cancer dissemination.
- Host-tumor interaction: role of immune system and hormones.
- Paraneoplastic syndromes.
- Hints of cancer epidemiology and risk factors.
- Grading and staging of tumors; hints of tumor markers.
- Pathophysiology of blood disorders. Hematopoiesis. Etiopathogenetsis of most frequent anemias, erythrocytosis, alterations of leucocytes (leukocytosis, leukopenia and leukemia), alterations of platelets, disorders of haemostasis.
- Causes and pathogenesis of hemodynamic disorders: hyperaemia, haemorrhage, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, embolism, infarction, shock.
- Pathophysiology of the liver: hepatic insufficiency, jaundice.
- Physiopathology of localized and generalized edema (nephrotic, nephritic, hepatic and cardiac).
- Main pathophysiological mechanisms of impaired renal function: glomerular and tubulo-interstitial diseases, acute and chronic renal failure.
- Alterations of plasma proteins.
- Pathophysiology of airway obstructive pathologies.
- Etiopathogenesis of immune-based diseases: hypersensitivity, autoimmunity, and hints of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies.
- Causes and pathogenesis of febrile hyperthermia.
- Serum proteins and their electrophoretic separation (SPE), disease-associated SPE patterns.
- Acute phase reactants (APRs) and erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR).
- Quantitative and qualitative laboratory analysis for dyslipoproteinemia.
- Markers of cell damage.