1.- Chemical Risk
The purpose of the RA: the protection of individuals and natural populations from dangerous chemical agents. Ecotoxicology, hazard identification and risk characterization. "Risk" concept. The chemical, carcinogenic and mutagenic risk. Dangerous substances and their origin. Chemical industry, production and destination of chemical products. Historical and normative references. Main national and international agencies and institutions involved. The characterization of health and environmental risk. Forecasting and retrospective applications. Evaluation of ecological risk.
2.- Risk assessment
Environmental impact. Recent references. Evaluation of the compatibility of emission sources in the territory. Environmental pressure and derivative concepts. Inputs: primary and secondary targets. Contamination and environmental quality. Environmental damage. The source / state / time ratio. IPPC Directive (Integrated Pollution Prevention & Control - 96/61 / EC). BATs and BREFs. Integrated environmental authorization. Types of emissions. The impact formula. Sensitivity, vulnerability and mitigation. Impact and Risk in the Environmental Code. Evaluation and management of chemical risk: contribution to decision-making processes and to pollution prevention.
3.- Risk Characterization
The EPA procedure for risk assessment. Phases of the HHRA and IRIS databases. Hazard identification and assessment of dose-response relationship. Calculation of RF and use of uncertainty / security factors. Extrapolation of the NOEL and importance of statistical power for its determination. Carcinogens, how to express the risk. Carcinogenic power, acceptable risks and extrapolation at low doses. IARC Classification. Evaluation of the exposure. Exposure quantification steps. Transport mechanisms and routes of exposure. Models and direct measurements for the estimation of the exposure point concentration. Exposure scenario and formula for the quantification of the exposure. Risk quotient for the risk characterization. EU guidelines: the Technical Guidance Document.
4.- Risk Management
Criteria and standards of environmental quality. Environment and health as a public good and negative externalities of economic action. Economic quantification of the impact of chemicals on human health and the environment. Environmental damage of pollution and the limits of the retrospective approach. Comparison of remediation technology costs. Communication and risk perception.
5.- Site-specific risk analysis
Contaminated sites and soil quality. The origins of national legislation on contaminated sites. Definitions. Contamination levels and types of intervention. Operating Procedures: DM 471/99. The Legislative Decree 152/2006. The APAT 2008 methodological criteria. Legislative Decree n. 152 of 3 April 2006 - Title V of Part Four. RBCA - Risk Based Corrective Action (ASTM, 1995). Forward and backword mode; the three levels of analysis. Conceptual model of site and characterization plan. Risk calculation criteria according to ISPRA. The RISKNET calculation code. Introduction to remediation technologies.