Concepts of geochemical background, geochemical baseline,
geochemical anomaly, contamination and pollution. Classification of
contaminants. Inorganic contaminants: heavy elements.
The main sources of contamination. Primary and secondary
contaminants. Particulate matter: classification of airborne particles by
size, origin and residence time in atmosphere; traffic-related particulate
matter. Carbon monoxide. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulphur oxides
(SOx): acid rain; photochemical smog. Volatile organic compounds (VOC):
aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Ozone.
Italian regulation of the main atmospheric contaminants. The monitoring
system of air quality in Tuscany.
Origin and behaviour of heavy elements in soil. Mobility and
bioavailability of heavy elements: chemical fractionation; soil fractions;
sorption processes and reactions. Italian regulation of soil inorganic
contaminants. Case studies of soils contaminated by heavy elements in
industrial, urban and agricultural areas.
Inorganic contaminants of hydrosphere: fractionation and speciation. The
main sources of contamination of stream waters, groundwater and
marine waters. Groundwater quality. Case studies of surface waters and
groundwater contaminated by heavy elements in mining, industrial and