Introduction to Biochemistry. The biological macromolecules; main classes and functional groups in Biochemistry. Isomerism in Biochemistry. The biological properties of water.
Aminoacids, peptides and polypeptides. The proteins: classification and structural organization. Structure-function relationships in proteins. Allosteric proteins. Hemoglobin and myoglobin. Post-translational modifications, transport and degradation of proteins.
The enzymes: biological function, classification. Principal mechanisms of enzymatic catalysis. The catalytic site. Vitamins and coenzymes. Multienzyme complexes. Kinetic properties of enzymes. Mechanisms of enzymatic inhibition. Mechanisms of enzymatic regulation; allosteric enzymes. Isozymes. Ribozymes.
The carbohydrates: biologically interesting carbohydrates. The saccharidic code.
Nucleotides and nucleic acids: nomenclature. Biological function. Primary and secondary structure. Denaturation and renaturation of DNA. Organizing cellular DNA into chromosomes: the chromosome of eukaryotic cells.
Lipids: classification and biological functions of natural lipids.
The biological membranes. General mechanisms of signal transduction. GPCR, GCR and RTK receptors, ionic channels, adhesion receptors, nuclear receptors.
The most common reactions in Biochemistry.
Introduction to metabolism: catabolism and anabolism. Degradative and biosynthetic pathways.
Principles of bioenergetics: the thermodinamics laws applied to biochemical reactions. High hydrolysis energy compounds.
Metabolism of carbohydrates. The glycolysis. The lactic fermentation. The oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate; the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathway. Glycogen degradation and synthesis. Regulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Regulation of glycogen metabolism.
The citric acid cycle. Metabolic significance and regulation.
Metabolism of lipids. Attivation, intracellular transport and degradation of fatty acids. Ketone bodies. Biosynthesis of fatty acids; short notes on the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols, membrane lipids, cholesterol and steroids. Plasma lipoproteins.
Metabolism of aminoacids. Transammination and the urea cycle. Biosynthesis of aminoacids. Metabolism of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
Integration and hormonal regulation of fuel metabolism.