Chemical reactivity: charge attraction, orbital overlaps, and electron flow.
How to represent a chemical mechanism. Thermodynamic and kinetic of a reaction
Nucleophilic substitution at saturated carbon. Structure and stability of carbocations: SN1 or Sn2. Factors controlling Sn1 and Sn2. Conjugated cations. Steric hindrance. The substrate, the leaving group. The nucleophile. Stereochemistry. Examples. Exchange of functional groups. The selectivity in amine alkylation.
Elimination. Substitution vs. elimination. Influence of the substrates, the nucleophile, the medium. E1 and E2 mechanisms. Factors controlling E1 and E2. Examples. Influence of conjugation.
Addition reaction. Addition to C=C bond. Markovnikov rules. Electrophilic addition vs. other additions. Stereochemistry of addition. Examples. Hydrogenation, epoxidation, halogenation,
Reactive intermediates: carbanions and radical. Organometallic reagents: Grignard, organolithium reagents, organometallic by deprotonation. Carbanion stability. Metal halogen exchange. Basic principle of organometallic chemistry. Hard and soft theory. How generate radicals. Radical stability. Singlet and triplet state radicals.
Carbonyl chemistry. Nucleophilic addition to C=O. Addition in basic medium. Addition in acids. Enolate chemistry. Conjugate reactivity
Nucleophilic substitution at Csp2. Reactivity of carboxylic acid derivatives.
Functional groups exchange chart.
Aromatic ring reactivity. Electrophilic substitution. Reaction with aromatics. Substituent influence. Examples. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution. Addition elimination mechanism. Diazonium salt and benzyne.