Plant cell and differences with the animal cell. Cell wall and its modifications. Vacuoles and main groups of cumulated substances. Plastids. Photosynthesis. Plant tissues: general concepts and classification. Morphology of root, stem and leaf. Water movements inside plants. Entrance and exit of gaseous substances. Fermentations. Chemosynthesis. Mineral nutrients absorption. Plant hormones. Pharmacognosy: general information. Medicinal plant, crude drug, collection time. Food integrators containing medicinal plants and related legal rules. Methods and cares for drug collection. Techniques of extraction of active principles from vegetal drugs. Extracting solutions and phytotherapic preparations: infusions, decoctions, tisanes, extracts, tinctures, essences, hydrolates, alcoholates. Analysis and control methods (Methods in Pharmacognosy of the Pharmacopoeias). Examples of medicinal plants.