Health and disease; signs and symptoms. Cellular Pathology: Type of cellular adaptations (hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia), intracellular accumulation (mechanisms and exemples), extracellular accumulation, reversible injury ( causes and mechanisms),pathologic calcification, necrosis, apoptosis. Inflammation: acute inflammation (cellular involvement and mediators), chronic inflammation ( cellular recruitment and mediators), abscesses, granulomas, systemic effects of inflammation, repair. Immunology and immunopathology: innate immunity, acquired immunity, hypersensitivity ( type I hypersensitivity: urticaria, allergic rhinitis, asthma; type II hypersensitivity: transfusion reaction, erythroblastosis fetalis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia; type III hypersensitivity: arthus reaction, serum sickness; type IV hypersensitivity: tuberculin reaction, contact dermatitis) immunologic tolerance; transplant immunology ( hyperacute, acute and chronic rejection; graft versus host disease) and autoimmune diseases ( systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis). General aetiology: principles of genetic pathology , physical and chemical agents that influence human health ( trauma, thermic agents, radiation, air pollution),nutritional disorders (marasmus, kwashiorkor, vitamin deficiencies). Oncology: tumor transformation, benign and malignant tumor ,principles of carcinogenesis , oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, tumor progression and metastasis, tumor immunology (mechanism of immunosorvegliance), tumor classification and nomenclature. Changes in haemodynamics: edema, hyperemia, vascular congestion, hemorrhage, hemostasis and thrombosis ,embolism, infarct, shock. Atherosclerosis: phatogenesis, risks factors, formation and evolution of atherosclerotic lesion. Jaundice: aetiology, physiophatology and classification. Diabetes mellitus: physiophatology , classification and complications.
Anemia: general aspects, morphologic and physiopathologic classification (II YEAR ONLY )