Chemistry and biochemistry
Atomic structure. Periodic table of the elements. Electronegativity. Chemical bonds. Chemical reactions. Oxidation-reduction reactions. Mole. Exothermic and endothermic reactions. Catalysis. Solutions. Acids and bases. pH and pOH. Buffers.
Main classes of organic compounds and their functional groups. Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids: structure and function. The peptide bonding. Hydrosoluble and liposoluble vitamins.
Metabolism, catabolism and anabolism. Energy requirements of cells and organisms. Exergonic and endergonic reactions. Role of oxygen. Role of ATP. Enzymes. Coenzyme role. Carbohydrate metabolism. Metabolic pathways of glucose. Post-glycolysis processes in aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Gluconeogenesis. Glycogen synthesis. Fatty acids metabolism, beta-oxidation. Protein synthesis, degradation and urea cycle. Krebs cycle, electron transport chains, oxidative phosphorylation.
Models of cellular organization: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The plasma membrane.
The nucleus and nuclear envelope. The chromatin. The nucleolus.
The smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes. The Golgi apparatus. Lysosomes and peroxisomes. Mitochondria and their role in energy metabolism. The cytoskeleton and the cell movement. Microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments. The centrioles. Extracellular matrix and cell junctions. Transcription and maturation of RNA. The genetic code. The synthesis of proteins. The fate of post-translational protein. The cell cycle. The replication of genetic material. Mitosis. The reproduction of living organisms. Sexual reproduction. Meiosis, gametogenesis and fertilization. Evolution and specie.
Basic physics, kinematics, dynamics, hydrostatics and hydrodinamics