Cell differentiation. Adult and embryonic stem cells. Asymmetric division. Centriole asymmetry. Drosophila neuroblasts: origin and development. Molecular basis of the asymmetric division of neuroblasts. Symmetric and asymmetric division of nervous stem cells in mammals. Brain evolution and microcephaly genes. Epitelial stem cells. Stem cell niches: structure and cell adhesion molecules. Signals involved in stem cell maintenance in Drosophila ovary and testis, in C.elegans and mouse testis and mammal gut. Centrsoome asymmetry and stem cell division.
Stem cells propierties and classification. Stem cells self renewal and potentiality. Embryonic stem cells: definition and peculiarity. Mechanisms of staminality. Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. Cell cycle control of embryonic stem cells. Diversity between embryonic stem cells and somatic stem cells. Molecular link between cell cycle and pluripotency. Histone modification, RNA interference, DNA methylation. Telomeres e telomerase. Properties of human embryonic stem cells in culture. What embryonic stem cells do. Sources of embryonic stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells. Transcritional factors involved in somatic cell de-differentiation: Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Myc-c, KLF4 and LIN28. Potentiality of iPSCs and problems yet to be resolved. Parthenogentic stem cells (PSCs). Adult stem cells: features and differences with embryonic stem cells. Stem cells are also present in "mature" organs. Adult stem cells locations. Rigeneration in nature: invertebrate and vertebrate examples. Haematopoietic stem cells. Haemopoietic growth factors. Sources of hematopoietic stem cells. Graft of hematopoietic stem cells and their employment to cure some diseases. Ombelical stem cells and their characteristics. Mesenchymal stem cells. Muscular stem cells and their use employment to cure some diseases. Epithelial stem cells. Neural stem cells: their localization and peculiarity. The importance of neural stem cells niche. Neurodegenerative diseases and the hope from stem cells. Lung Stem cells. Stem cells aging. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine: cells, biomaterials, bioreactors and grown factors. Examples and prospectives. Fat tissue as source of stem cells for regenerative medicine. Cancer stem cells: Self-renewall pathwys of cancer stem cells. Wnt, Shh, Notch. Cell division of cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells and metastasis. Cancer stem cells and angiogenesis. Individualization of cancer stem cells.Cancer stem cells and prospective in medicine. The importance of cancer stem cells niche.