Introduction to Microbiology - The historical roots of Microbiology - Prokaryotic diversity - Eukaryotic microorganisms - Cell morphology - Cytoplasmic membrane: structure and function - Membrane transport systems - The cell wall of prokaryotes: peptidoglycan and related molecules - The outer membrane of Gram-negative Bacteria - Bacterial cell surface structures - Cell inclusions - Endospores - Flagella and motility. Nutrition and culture of microorganisms - Major catabolic pathways, electron transport, and the proton motive force - Carbon flow in respiration and catabolic alternatives - Biosynthesis of peptidoglycan. Cell growth and binary fission - Growth terminology and the concept of exponential growth - The bacterial growth cycle - Direct measurements of microbial growth: total and viable counts - Indirect measurements of microbial growth: turbidity - Environmental effects on microbial growth: temperature, pH, oxygen and osmotic effects on microbial growth - Major modes of regulation - Regulation of enzyme activity - Negative control of transcription: repression and induction - Positive control of transcription - Global control and the lac operon. General properties of viruses - Nature of the virion - The virus host - General features of virus replication - Viral diversity - Virulent bacteriophages and T4 - Temperate bacteriophages - Overview of animal viruses - Viroids and prions. Genetic exchange in prokaryotes: transformation and transduction - Plasmids: general principles, types of plasmids and their biological significance - Conjugation: essential features - The formation of Hfr strains and chromosome mobilization - Genetic map of the Escherichia coli chromosome. Microbial evolution and systematics - Major microbial habitats and diversity - Methods in microbial ecology - Microbial symbioses - Microbial interactions with humans: beneficial and harmful interactions. Microbial growth control - Physical and chemical antimicrobial control - Antimicrobial agents used in vivo - Antimicrobial drug resistance.