Concept of ecosystem. Structure of the ecosystem. Biological control of phisico-chemical environment. Classification of ecosystems.
Energetic environment. Concept of productivity. Food chains, food webs , trophic levels . Quality of energy. Metabolism and body size. Trophic structure and ecological pyramids.
Models and basic types of biogeochemical cycles. Anthropogenic interference with the natural cycles. The carbon cycle. Nitrogen cycle. Phosphorus cycle . Sulfur cycle. Oxygen cycle.
Property group of the population. Ecotypes. Development of the population. The logistic model. Cyclical fluctuations. Control factors of polulation dynamics. Structure of the population: aggregation, isolation, territoriality. Energy distribution and optimization. Strategies of the biological cycle.
Interactions between species classification. The competition. The Lotka -Volterra model. The principle of competitive exclusion. Criticism of the theoretical models of the competition. Predation, herbivory, parasitism and allelopathy. Commensalism, mutualism and cooperation. Criptismo and mimicry. Habitat, ecological niche and corporation. Coevolution. Diversity organic . Biodiversity indices. Theories of diversity. Community and gradients.
Strategies for development of an ecosystem. Climax . Climatic and edafic climax. Facilitative model. Competitive model. Theory of monoclimax. Speciation, micro-and macroevolution