Structure and properties of organic molecules
Atomic orbitals. Electronegativity. Oxidation number. Hybridization.
Bond lengths and angles.
Physico-chemical properties. Intra-and intermolecular forces. Hyperconiugation.
Conformations and conformational analysis of alkanes and cycloalkanes. Newman projections.
Isomers: characterization and properties.
Nomenclature of organic compounds.
Nature of substituents and symmetry of the molecules.
The carbon sp3: alkanes, haloalkanes, cycloalkanes, alcohols, ethers and thio derivatives. Amines.
The carbon sp2: alkenes and their relative stability. Dienes, conjugated dienes and their conformations. Cumulenes. Benzene, aromatic compounds and aromaticity. Polycyclic aromatic systems . Phenols.
Carbonyl compounds: aldehydes and ketons. Keto-enol tautomerism.
Carboxylic acids: aliphatic, aromatic, saturated, unsaturated compounds. Polycarboxyilic acids. Esters, amides, acylic halides.
The carbon sp: alkynes.
Chiral molecules. The enantiomers. Fischer projections. Assignment of absolute configuration: the systems of nomenclature R / S.
Molecules with more than one stereocenter: the diastereoisomers. Planes of symmetry in chiral molecules: meso compounds. Racemes.
Enantiomery of substituted cycloalkanes: conformational and configurational stereoisomers.
Optical activity. The polarimeter and the specific optical rotation. Optical purity and enantiomeric excess.
Resolution of racemic mixtures.
Geometric isomers . Nomenclature cis / trans and Z / E.
Molecules, radicals and ions: structure and stability. Polarity. Resonance. Tautomerism.
Organic acids and bases
Factors affecting the acidity and basicity. Examples and applications
Chemical reactions: introduction. Kinetics and thermodynamics of reactions.
Heterolysis and homolysis. Stereo-, regio- and chemo- selectivity and specificity of reactions.
Halogenation of alkanes: mechanism, thermodynamics and kinetics.
Regio and stereochemistry of radical reactions.
Nucleophilic additions: the carbonyl group: polarizability, acidity. Nucleophilic addition of water, HCN, alcohols, amines. Conjugate additions.
Electrophilic additions: alkenes and alkynes. Regioselectivity and Markovnikov rule.
Diels-Alder reaction. Concerted mechanism and stereospecificity.
Nucleophilic substitutions. Nucleophilicity, basicity and leaving groups. SN1 and SN2 reactions: thermodynamics and kinetics. Stereochemistry. Alkyl halides.
Electrophilic aromatic substitutions. Delocalized systems. Aromaticity. The Hückel rule. Nitration, sulfonation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation. Mesomeric and inductive effects.
Nucleophilic aromatic substitutions.
Unimolecular and bimolecular eliminations (E1, E2).
Carbohydrates: structure and properties.