Aims of Genetics and its relationship to other biological, medical, social and economic disciplines
Mendelian principles.Monohybrid, dihybrid, polyhybrid crossbreed; test cross ."chi-square test
techniques of genetic analysis of organisms with respect to their life cycles. Chromosomes, cell divisions, gametogenesis: relationships with the Mendelian principles.Genes association, crossing-over, its nature and its biological significance in biological evolution. Chromosomes mapping, three points cross: interference, analysis of tetrads.Elementary techniques in cytogenetics; construction of human karyotype. Changes in the number of chromosomes: aneuploidy; human cases. Structure alterations of chromosome: deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, their phenotypic effects, their use for chromosome mapping, and their significance in biological evolution. Monoploidy: auto and allopolyploidy: their phenotypic effects and biological significance. Sex-linked inheritance, sex genetic determination. DNA and RNA replication, transcription, translation and genetic code.Techniques for mutations discovering. Molecular basis of mutations: physical and chemical mutagens, mutagenicity tests. Mechanisms repairing for DNA damages and their contribution to mutagenesis. Bacterial genetics: transformation, conjugation, transduction: bacterial chromosome.
mapping. Genetics of human blood groups. Genetics of immunity. Extranuclear Genetics and maternal inheritance: mitochondrial and chloroplast genome; their biological significance in biological evolution. Basic Principles of Population Genetics.