General and clinical microbiology. Mycology: structure of the fungal cell, modes of fungal reproduction, dimorphic fungi, main pathogenicity factors of fungi, main antifungal drugs. Bacteriology: bacterial cell and Gram staining, pathogenicity mechanisms of bacteria and host defenses, antibiotic therapy. Virology: viral architecture, viral multiplication, pathogenicity mechanisms of viruses; acute, latent, persistent, chronic and slow infections, and malignant transformation. Clinical microbiology: main infections of the respiratory, gastro-intestinal and uro-genital tracts; sexually transmitted diseases; infectious hepatitis; mycoses. Brief notions of Applied Microbiology will be also provided.
Pathology and Pathophysiology. Students must learn basic concepts with reference to health and disease, and to the underlying causes (etiology) ad mechanisms (pathogenesis) leading to disease. They must also learn the major pathophysiological processes. General etiology: genetic and environmental causes of disease. Defences against pathogens: natural barriers, cells and tissues of immune system, innate immunity, adaptive immunity (active and passive). Immunohematology: antigens and antibodies of the major blood groups, transfusional compatibility and reactions. Cellular pathology: alterations of growth, storage disorders, cell death. Inflammation: angioflogosis (alterations of microcirculation, exudate formation, chemical mediators), histoflogosis (interstitial and granulomatous), systemic response. Tumors: classification and nomenclature; oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes; invasiveness and metastases; environmental carcinogenesis and familial tumors; becks on cancer epidemiology and risk factors; grading and staging; becks on tumoral markers. Pathophysiology: becks on immune disorders (hypersensitivity, autoimmunity, immunodeficiency); thermoregulation and hyperthermia; hemodynamic disorders (hyperemia, hemorrhage, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, embolism, stroke, shock, hypertension and hypotension, hemostasis alterations); blood pathophysiology; pancreas and thyroid pathophysiology; acidosis and alkalosis; liver pathophysiology; lung emphysema and fibrosis.
Pharmacology. The course is divided into a first section that will focus on the interaction of drugs with their molecular targets (enzymes, ionic pumps, transporters and receptors) and on the main pharmacokinetic parameters. The second part will focus on the fundamental drugs utilized for the treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders; antihypertensive agents, analgesic/anti-inflammatory agents; agents for treatment of hyperglicemia and hypercholesterolemia; anticoagulants, antiulcers agents.
Pathology. Essentials of macroscopical and microscopical human pathology; p’athology of the organ; general aspects of human diseases and clinico-pathological correlations; pathological aspects of endocrine diseases; inflammatory and neoplastic diseases of the stomach, intestine, liver, lung, genital and urinary systems, and of the breast; pulmonary oedema, emboli, and emphysema; ischemic heart disease; atherosclerosis; lymphomas; lymphadenitis; pathological aspects of splenomegaly; Central Nervous System: endocranial hypertension, circulatory disorders, neoplasms, meningitis and encephalitis.