I - Knowledge of the fundamental properties of living organism
- The fundamental characteristics of living organisms
- Patterns of cellular organization : prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Genetic-independent unit: viruses.
II - Acquisition of basic knowledge concerning the chemical composition of living organism.
- The biological macromolecules. Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides , oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Lipids : triglycerides, cholesterol , phospholipids, glycolipids. Neutral amino acids , acids and bases . Proteins: primary, secondary , tertiary and quaternary structural levels. Nucleic acids : DNA and RNA . Structure and function. Enzymes and catalysis
III - Knowledge of the structure and functions of cell organelles .
- The plasma membrane : molecular organization of the membrane ; dynamic functions of the membranes (simple and facilitated diffusion, active transport, osmosis, endocytosis and exocytosis; reception and transmission of signals and stimuli ) .
- The nucleus and the nuclear envelope. The molecular organization of chromatin. The nucleolus.
- Ribosomes: morphology, biogenesis and functions.
- The smooth endoplasmic reticulum .
-The granular endoplasmic reticulum
- The Golgi' apparatus: structure and function.
- Lysosomes and lysosomal hydrolases.
-The mitochondria and cellular respiration. Morphology, biogenesis and role of mitochondria in energy metabolism. ATP as " currency " energy of life. Anaerobic respiration: glycolysis . The aerobic respiration: the Krebs cycle, electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. The energy balance of glycolysis and respiration .
- Signals for sorting of proteins between intracellular compartments .
- The vesicular trafficking : mechanisms of vesicle formation and sorting of molecular signals .
- The cytoskeleton and cell movement . Microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments . The centrioles .
- Cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. The extracellular matrix .
IV . Knowledge of the mechanisms of the genetic information: from DNA to proteins.
- Transcription and functional maturation of RNA .
- Expressione of genetic information : the genetic code.
- The protein synthesis.
- The fate of post-translational protein .
V. Knowledge of the mechanisms of cellular reproduction.
- The cell cycle.
- Mitosis .
- The reproduction of living organisms (asexual , sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction).
- Sexual reproduction: meiosis and gametogenesis .
- Fertilization : molecular mechanism of recognition between gametes and activation of intracellular processes .