Vitamins: general descriptions; Active principle and their binding with enzymatic cofactors. Water-soluble and Liposoluble Vitamins. Recommended daily recommended doses.
Glucids: Digestion and absorption; Glucose transport and other monosaccharides through the membranes. Glucose Metabolism: Glucose Intake. Metabolic Factor of Glucose-6-P. Glycolysis: meaning and regulation (hormone action) - presence in various tissues - Pasteur effect. Alcoholic fermentation. Warburg effect. Gluconeogenesis. Cory Cycle. Glucose Aerobic Metabolism. Piruvate Dehydrogenase. Phosphate pentose cycle. Glycogen metabolism: glycogen synthesis and glycogenolysis. Metabolism of glucuronic acid. Fructose. Galactose and other monosaccharides.
Lipids: Digestion and absorption. Plasma lipoprotein functions (endogenous and exogenous circuit); Distinction of the various classes of lipoproteins. Oxidative use of fatty acids: their activation and transport. Function of carnitine. Beta oxidation: distinctions between saturated / unsaturated and even / odd fatty acids. Metabolism of Ketone Corps: "Chetogenesis"; Oxidative use of ketone bodies. Fatty acid biosynthesis (lipogenesis). Cholesterol Metabolism: Biosynthesis; Cholesterol Metabolic Transformations. Molecules derived from cholesterol. Hints on glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids.
Proteins: Digestion and absorption. Diversity of action of gastric, pancreatic and intestinal proteases. Concept of essential amino acids for humans: nitrogen balance. Main catabolisms: decarboxylation; Biosynthesis and degradation of catecholamines; Oxidative and non-oxidative deamination; transamination. Metabolic Destiny of Ammonia: Synthesis of carbamyl-P; Glutamate synthesis; Synthesis / demolition of glutamine; Synthesis of alanine; Glucose-alanine cycle. Urea cycle. Azotemia and ammonia. Metabolism of individual amino acids. Creatine and Phosphocreatine - Creatinine.
Heme: Different Types of heme and Their Different Uses; Biosynthesis of the heme B. Catabolism. Final products and their release. Synthesis and disposal disorders.
Purine and pyrimidine nucleotides: "de novo" biosynthesis; Recovery pathways; Catabolism of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides: formation of uric acid. Examples of antifolic and antimetabolites: examples of antitumor and antiviral molecules.
Mitochondrial Bioenergetics: Transfer of Cytoplasmic Reducing Power to Mitochondria by Shuttle Systems: "Malate Aspartate" and "Dioxyacetophosphate Glycerol-3-P". Krebs cycle: stages, meaning and regulation; Complexity of metabolic function (amphibolic metabolic pathway: anaplerotic reactions). Energy balance.
The Respiratory Chain: components, their location, organization and sequence. Functional and functional features of ATP synthetase. Uncoupling proteins. Uncoupling agents.
Hints of Nutrition Biochemistry: Constant references to proper energy / nutrition requirements with basic principles of proper nutrition.
Liver: role in blood glucose control; Biosynthesis and the role of bile salts and pigments (details of various types of jaundice); Biosynthesis the role of uronic acids; The mechanisms of detoxification from xenobiotics.
Blood: Plasma composition (electrophoresis). Metabolic characteristics of mature circulating erythrocytes. Glutathione function. Fetal hemoglobin and pathological hemoglobin.
Kidney: blood glucose control. Adjustment of the hydro-saline balance. Erythropoietin. Glutaminase. Composition of urine.