The course is based on the advanced pharmaceutical technologies. In particular, the modified release systems of drugs are illustred such as micro- and nanoparticulate and supramolecular systems.
Drug delivery systems: general characteristics. Mechanisms of drug release. Diffusion in a polymeric system. Macroporous, microporous, non-porous systems. Drug release through reservoir and monolithic systems.
Liposomes: classification, characteristics, chemical composition, techniques for their preparation. Efficiency of drug encapsulation and techniques for improved loading efficiencies. Chemical, physical and biological stability. Characterization of liposomes. Advantages and drawbacks. Targeting. Interaction of liposome with cells. Therapeutic applications: parenteral route; oral, pulmonary, ocular and topical applications. Other types of liposomes: Ethosomes, Oxysomes, Photosomes, Transferosomes. Niosomes: general characteristics, chemical composition, preparation methods, entrapment efficacies. Therapeutic applications: intravenous, oral, topical routes. Stealth liposomes: advantages; therapeutic applications.
Lipospheres: general characteristics, preparation, advantages, therapeutic applications.
SLN: general characteristics, advantages, preparation, characterization. Drug release. Therapeutic applications: topical, oral, pulmonary, parenteral. NLC (Nanostructured Lipid Carrier) and LDC (Lipid Drug Conjugate): characteristics, preparation and applications.
Microparticulate systems: microcapsules and microspheres.
General characteristics. Polymers used for their preparation. Microspheres: preparation techniques (emulsification-solvent evaporation, emulsification-solvent extraction, complex coacervation, centrifugal extrusion, spray-drying). Characterization. Microcapsules: types. Preparation methods (interfacial polymerization). Therapeutic applications.
Nanoparticles (nanocapsules and nanospheres): general characteristics. Toxicological considerations. Preparation methods (emulsification-solvent evaporation, slting-out, diffusion-evaporation, emulsification polymerization, interfacial polymerization). Polymer used for their preparation. Factors influencing the polymerization. Characterization. Drug release. Therapeutic applications: intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, oral, ocular administration. Drug-loaded nanoparticles in cancer chemotherapy. Nanoparticles as adjuvants for vaccines. Magnetic nanoparticles. Monoclonal antibody-coated nanoparticles.
Cyclodextrins as drug carriers: native and modified cyclodextrins. Physicochemical properties. Cyclodextrin production. Toxicological considerations. Advantages. Inclusion complexes formation: driving-force, stability constant. Preparation methods, characterization. Crystal structures. Solubility and drug solubilization. Therapeutic applications: oral and topical.
Emulsions, multiple emulsions, microemulsions, nanoemulsions.