Definition of a medicinal plant, drug, herbal medicine, the plant complex. From plant to plant drug. Good practice of growing and harvesting of medicinal plants.
primary and secondary metabolism; biological reasons for the production of plant metabolites secondari.Citologia and photosynthesis: The plant cell. Differences between animal cell and plant cell. The cell wall and its functions. Cellulose: structure and physical-chemical properties. Reed median, primary wall (plasmodesmata and porocanali), secondary wall: their structure, formation, texture. Secondary modifications of the cell wall: impregnation (interposing and affixing: lignification, sealing) and chemical changes (natural and pathological). The vacuoles, hypotheses about their origin. Tonoplast. Their development in accretion function of the cell. Osmosis, turgor pressure, drying, plasmolysis. The functions of the vacuole; main groups of substances accumulated in the vacuoles. Pharmaceutical importance of the vacuole. crystalline inclusions. Plastids and their general characteristics. The proplastidi and their structure. Leucoplasts, primary and secondary starch, the starch granules, the starches of the FU. Chromoplasts: features and ultrastructure.
The chloroplasts and their ultrastructure: thylakoids granaries and intergranari. Etioplast. Possible interconversion of different plastids. Photosynthesis: its limiting factors, antenna and chlorophyll pigments, light and dark phase phase. Calvin cycle. Plants C-3, C-4 and CAM.Istologia plant Various types of cellular aggregation. Tissues meristematic and adult tissues. Classification of tissues. Meristems: apical, interlayers and side; primary and secondary. Parenchyma: chlorophyll, reserve (aquifer, amilifero, etc.), Aerifero (gaps, auriferous channels), filling (medulla and cortex). Tegumental tissue: epidermis. Cutin and cuticle. Stomatal apparatus, trichomes. Rizoderma, mesoderm, cork, endodermide. supporting tissues: collenchimi (angular and lamellar), sclerenchimi (sclereids, sclerenchimatiche fibers, xilari and extraxilari).
conducting tissues: vascular tissue, cribroso tissue. vascular bundles and their type. The liquid circulating in plants: raw sap and sap drawn.
secretory system: types of products produced and types of accumulation. isolated cells (idioblast) and complex structures, pockets and channels, resiniferi channels, lactiferous (apociziali and syncytial). external secretion organs: glandular hairs and scales, nectars, digestive glands, hydathode.
Plant complex. Balsamic time. Endogenous and exogenous factors that influence the production of active ingredients. Conservation of drugs. Powders and sieves. Methods of extraction. Maceration, digestion, percolation, extracts and tinctures, essential oils and their extraction methods, hydrolates, alcoholates, alcolaturi. General methods of pharmacognosy the FU. Drugs in the European Pharmacopoeia. chemical classification and biogenesis of active ingredients: carbohydrates, lipids, saponins, sterols, essences and resins, phenols and polyphenols, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids. Collection, preparation and storage of drugs. pharmaceutical forms. Quality control according to the Italian Official Pharmacopoeia. Wise and bioassay. Main techniques of extraction, separation and identification of drugs and their active ingredients.
Drugs for laxative activity. vegetable fibers, Altea, Mallow, Lino, Plantain, Amorfofallo, Guar, bran and cereals, Fucus. dietary fiber, tamarind, manna. Anthraquinone purgatives (Aloe species, Senna, Cascara, Frangula and rhubarb).
Boldo, Milk Thistle. Classification polyphenols (flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids). Vine, Wine, Black Blueberry, Bilberry American, Tea, Witch Hazel, Rhatany, Mirra, Ginkgo biloba, Aglio.Acidi acids and t