Models of cellular organization: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The plasma membrane: molecular organization of the membrane; dynamic functions of the membranes.
The nucleus and nuclear envelope. The molecular organization of chromatin. The nucleolus.
The smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes: biogenesis and function.
The Golgi apparatus: structure and function. Lysosomes and peroxisomes. Mitochondria: morphology, biogenesis and their role in energy metabolism.The cytoskeleton and the cell movement. Microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments. The centrioles. Extracellular matrix and cell junctions. Transcription and maturation of RNA. The genetic code. The synthesis of proteins. The fate of post-translational protein.The cell cycle. The replication of genetic material: molecular mechanism and enzyme. Mitosis. The reproduction of living organisms. Sexual reproduction. Meiosis, gametogenesis and fertilization. Evolution and species concept.
Methods and means of histological investigations: microscopes and sample preparation. Classification of tissues: Epithelial tissue, connective tissue, bone tissue, blood and lymphatic system, Muscular Tissue, Nervous Tissue.
Anatomy and Physiology
Organization of the human body, anatomical terminology, topographic anatomy. Skeletal system, joints, muscular system, cardiovascular system (heart, arteries, veins, capillaries), lymphatic system (thymus, spleen, lymph nodes), respiratory (nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs, the pleura), digestive tract (oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine), liver, pancreas, urinary tract, the kidneys (urinary tract, bladder, urethra). Male genitalia (testis, spermatic tract and related glands, prostate, external genitalia), female genital organs (ovaries, uterus, fallopian tube, vagina, external genitalia). Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord Brain, autonomic nervous system, peripheral nervous system.