The chemical composition of solutions, weight and concentration units, ionic strength and activity. Outline of gravimetric methods, Volumetric methods of analysis: reactions and reagents used, titration curves, volumetric calculations, standard solutions and primary standards. Fractional precipitation, Solubility Product Constant. Precipitation Titrations: titration curves, end point detection, applications with Silver Ion. Theory of neutralization titrations: acid- base equilibria, pH calculation in simplex and complex systems, buffer solutions, titration curves for simplex and complex acid-base systems, acid-base indicators, reagents and applications of neutralizzation titrations. Equilibrium in Oxidation-Reduction Systems: fundamentals of electrochemistry, theory of Oxidation-Reduction titrations, titration curves, indicators, reagents and applications involving quadrivalent Cerium, Iodine, Potassium Permanganate. Volumetric methods based on complex-formation reactions. equilibra, titration curves, end point detection, titrations with EDTA, metal ion indicators. Acid-Base Titration in Nonacqueoud Media, theory and principal applications. Electroanalytical Chemistry: cells and electrodes, potentiometric measurements and potentiometric titrations, Voltammetric and Polarographic techniques, Amperometric Titrations and Amperometric Titrationd with Two Polarized Microelectrodes, the Karl Fischer method. Methods based on Absorption of Radiation: theory of absorption of radiation, molecular and atomic spectra, quantitative aspects and applications, UV-VIS Spectrometry and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Atomic Emission Spectrometry: flame and Inductively Coupled Palsma. Chromatography: Mobile and Stationary Phase, Classical Open Column, Paper and Thin-Layer Chromatography; Partition, Adsorption; Instrumental Chromatography and Chromatogram, Number of Theoretical Plates and Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate. Gas Cromatography: instrument design, sample injection, packed and capillary columns, columns temperature, universal and selective detectors, thermal conductivity, flame ionisation and electron capture detectors, Gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). High Performance Liquid Chromatography: the HPLC system, mobile phase, gradient and isocratic eluition, normal phase and reverse phase columns, ion exchange and size exlusion columns, Affinity Chromatography; universal and selective detectors, UV detectors (fixed and variable wavelength and diode array), refractive index and electrochemical detectors, Liquid Cromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). Instrumental measurement, matematics of linear relationship, Method of Least Squares, the Correlation Coefficient, Quantitative Analysis, the Calibration Curve, the Internal Standard Method and the Standard Addition Method. Evaluation of analytical data, determinate and indeterminate errors, statistical analysis of data. Analytical Method Validation: Precision, Accuracy, Linearity, Robustness, Specificity, Limit of Detection (LOD), Limit of Quantification (LOQ).