Taste: Taste sensory structures: taste buds, taste buds and taste cells. Taste mode and gustatory signal transduction mechanism. Stimuli gustative and basic flavors. Pathways of chemoceptive sensitivity and taste centers. Taste discrimination: hypothesis of dedicated lines. Food flavor: central integration of various sensory information. Inborn and acquired taste preferences. Genetic defects of gustatory perception and nutrition.
Smell: Peripheral organization of the olfactory system. Olfactory epithelium. Central olfactory paths. Molecular basis of olfactory perception and mechanism of translation of the odorous signal Neurorigeneration of the olfactory epithelium. Olfactory discrimination: combinatorial code and topographical organization. Alteration of olfactory sensitivity and nutrition.
GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM: DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION
Functional anatomy of the alimentary canal. Gastro-intestinal hormones. Secretions of the intestinal gastro-intestinal system: composition, function and control. Gastrointestinal motility. Pancreatic secretion: composition and control. Liver functions. Biliary secretion: composition and control. Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Absorption of water and mineral salts. Intestinal microflora: composition and functions.
Development and physiology of mucosal defense
Structure and function of intestinal mucosal epithelium. Cellular and molecular bases for the antigenic transport of the intestinal epithelium. Inductive sites: Peyer plates. Immunocompetent cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Lymphoid tissue associated with the intestine. Endocrine regulation of mucosal immunity. Immunological components of milk: formation and function. Food allergies and intolerances. Crohn's disease.
FOOD AND HEALTH
Guidelines for healthy eating Energy balance. Regulation of food intake .. Overweight and obesity. Food and nutritional groups. Nutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, essential fatty acids, water, mineral salts: micro and macro elements. Ultra-light elements. Fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. Antioxidants and free radicals. RDAs. Food consumption. Balanced diet. Nutrition in particular physiological conditions: in children and adolescents, in sports, in old age, in pregnancy and during lactation. Breast milk, cow's milk and formula or artificial milk. Food supplements. Dietary foods. Mediterranean diet and food pyramid. Diet and pathologies. Drug-nutrient interactions. Nutritional status and action of drugs. Intolerances and allergies.