Chemical bonds and electronegativity. Valence bond theory. Atomic orbitals. Alcanes: Structure, sp3 hybridation. bonds. Chemical and physical properties and natural distribution. Nomenclature. Recativity. Cycloalcane conformations and conformational analysis. Small, medium and large cycles. Polycyclic systems. Alkenes: Structure, sp2 hybridation. bonds. Chemical and physical properties and natural distribution. Nomenclature. E/Z isomerism. Reactivity. Dienes. Delocalization charge in systems. Diels-Alder reactions.
Alkynes: Structure, sp hybridation. bonds. Chemical and physical properties and nomenclature. Acetylene. Anaion from alkynes.
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Benzene structure and properties. Kekulè formula and resonance. Aromaticity. Huckel’s rule. Nomenclature. Orto, meta e para isomerism. Reactivity: SEAr (mechanism and effect of the different substituents) and SNAr. Quanternary carbon atoms and chiral molecules. Racemic mixture and enantiomerically pure compounds. Polimeter and optical rotatory power. Diastereoisomers and meso compounds. Chirality generation. Determination of the absolute configuration of a stereogenic center. Fischer projections.
Halogen derivatives: Structure and chemical physical properties. Nomenclature. Reactivity at the Sp3 carbon. Nuclephylic substitution and elimination. Grignard’s reagents and organometallic compounds.
Alcohols, phenols, ethers and thiols: Structure and chemicl-physical properties. Nomenclature. Reactivity on the C and O of an alcohol. Alcohol derivatives in SN reactions. Oxidation. Phenols reactivity. Acidity. Ethers
nomenclature and application. Epoxides and their reactions. Thiols and their acid- base properties. Oxidation reactions, disulfide, thioether, sulphoxide and sulphone derivatives.
Aldehyde and ketones: Structure and chemicl-physical properties. Nomenclature. Reactivity on the carbonyl and in alfa position. Nucleophilic addition, redox. Functional derivatives: acetals, emiacetals, imine, oxime, hydrazone, semicarbazone. Acidity of the H in alfa position. Keto-enolic tautomerism. Enolate reactivity. Aldol condensation. -dicarbonyl compounds.
Amines: Structure and chemicl-physical properties. Nomenclature. Reactivity. Amines as bases and nuclephiles, ammonum salts. Aromatic amines. Preparation and diazotation-copulation reactions.
Carboxylic acids and derivatives: Structure and chemicl-physical properties. Nomenclature. Acidity. Preparation and reactivity. Preparation of acyl halides, esters and amides and reactivity. Claisen condensation, malonic and acetoacetic syntheses.
Aminoacids and proteins: Structure and chemicl-physical properties. Nomenclature. Reactivity. Peptide synthesis.