Fundamentals of general and plant biochemistry for students in majors not requiring the biology core. Overview of plant biology research. Differences among plants and animals.Scientific basis of plant taxonomy and the identification and classification of major plant families, native trees, shrubs, and wild flowers. Biology of cells: the biosynthesis, assembly, function, and regulation of cell walls; cellulose and starch. Middle lamella.Cell organelles: Vacuoles. Plastids: chloroplasts, ezioplasts, amyloplasts (primary and secondary starch; starches in FUI), chromoplasts.Plant tissues: cell types, meristema tissues, parenchyma tissues, supporting tissues, dermal tissues, vascular tissues, ground tissues, secretor tissues. Anatomy of vascular plants, emphasizing structure and development of basic cell and tissue types, of plant organs: root, stem, leaf. Anatomy of seeds. Plant Physiology: structure-function relationship of plants, internal and external factors regulating plant growth and development, plant hormones, plant metabolism, water relations, and mineral nutrition. Physiology and biochemistry of Photosynthesis in higher plants and microorganisms: light reactions, electron transport, membrane structure and function, carbon assimilation pathways, energy conservation, and metabolic regulation. C3, C4 and CAM plants. Plant stomata and gas exchange. Water: absorption and transport, water cycle. Plant hormones and their functionsPhotoperiodism and thermoperiodism: short day and long day flowering responses and effect on plants of the rhythmic fluctuation of temperature, including responses associated with thermal changes accompanying the alternation of day and night.