The course will deal with the sources of law, teaching methods and legal thinking from an historical point of view, since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (476 AD) to the 19th century, paying particular attention to the profiles of public law and the discipline of work and professional guilds.
At first, in the introduction, the suggested texts and the course and some of the general themes (such as the characteristics of the different legal experiences, the main historiographical currents and the sources of law) will be illustrated. Then, the following topics will be treated and deeply discussed:
the early Middle Ages and the evolution of the institutional structures operating within the European legal systems, since the formation of the Roman-Barbarian kingdoms in the fifth century, up to the foundation, between the eighth and ninth centuries, of the Carolingian Empire and the development of territorial lords and feudal bonds;
the Legal Renaissance (XII-XV centuries): the recovery of Roman-Justinian law and the legal science; the formation of a political-juridical order, based on the two universal institutions of the Papacy and the Empire, the development of intermediate and minors institutions (kingdoms and princedoms on one hand; municipalities and professional guilds on the other); the affirmation of a legal system characterized by the dialectical coordination between ius commune and iura propria;
Juridical Humanism and the “Scuola Culta”; the theory of Modern Jusnaturalism; Legal Rationalism;
the disintegration of the political and juridical unity of the Respublica Christianorum, followed by the formation of modern nation-states and the Protestant Reformation; the main characteristics of the Modern State;
reforms wich have take place during the Enlightenment;