GEOCHEMISTRY OF WEATHERING
Physical and chemical weathering of minerals and rocks. Silicate stability in weathering. Factors and environments of weathering.
The main soil features. The main solid constituents of soil and their surface properties: clay minerals; iron oxyhydroxides; organic matter. Adsorption reactions: ionic exchange, specific adsorption, organic complexation; surface complexes; adsorption capacity. Precipitation and coprecipitation. Substitutions in minerals. Chemical fractionation of elements in soil. Mobility and availability of chemical elements in soil. Behaviour of some chemical elements in soil. Soil contamination by heavy elements.
General aspects. Fractionation, speciation and mobility of chemical elements in natural waters. Atmospheric dry depositions: particulate matter (PM10). Atmospheric wet depositions: chemical features of rain waters. Groundwater: hydrogeochemical processes in water-rock interaction; chemical features. Contamination by heavy elements of surface waters and groundwater.
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY RESEARCHES
Sampling strategy and design. Sampling procedures and sample preparation in the laboratory (waters, stream sediments and soil).