TOPIC OF THE COURSE: Criteriological ethics – Moral values and duties.
CONTENTS: 1. The first, short part of the course, after an introduction, presents two basic approaches to normative ethics - or as it should be said more precisely: criteriological ethics -, utilitarianism and (utility) egalitarianism, and shows how such basic theories can be applied to concrete problems. The two main parts of the course are then dedicated to two fundamental themes of criteriological ethics - values and moral duties - but with a focus on more specific themes. 2. From the theory of moral values, two conceptions of welfare ethics will be discussed: a) moderate egalitarianism, according to which, on the one hand, the sum of the individual benefits of all should be as high as possible, but, on the other hand, distributed as equally as possible, and b) prioritarianism, according to which the increase in the individual benefits of each person is morally positive, but greater weight is given to improving the situation of those who are worse off. In particular, it will be discussed whether these two approaches differ in practice. 3. The second main part is dedicated to the question of what moral obligations derive from moral values. A simple but rather inadequate theory in this respect is that we always have a duty to do the best morally. What are the alternatives to this approach? - In the course we will discuss texts, among others, of: 1. Sidgwick, Temkin, 2. Adler, Holtug, Jensen, Martin O'Neill, Otsuka, Parfit, Tungodden, Voorhoeve, 3. Dreier, Frankena, Hardin, Hart, Scarre, Scheffler, Shaw, Shue.