Regarding the expected learning outcomes, the Student must know how to distinguish the prokaryotic cell from the eukaryotic cell, must be able to classify biological macromolecules to address the study of the structure and function of the eukaryotic cell.
He must know and be able to distinguish the various districts of the eukaryotic cell, analyze and understand their function; he must know how to analyze the structure of the plasma membrane and correlate it to function in particular in relation to the concept of transport and signal transduction. He must know and be able to classify the various cellular organelles (nucleus and chromatin, the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and peroxisomes) and be able to identify the relationships between them. He must know and classify the proteins of the cytoskeleton, understand and analyze their function even in complex systems such as skeletal muscle and axonemal structure.
The student must know and be able to distinguish and connect the mechanisms of the flow of genetic information from DNA to proteins: transcription, genetic code, translation, gene expression control. It must be able to locate these processes in the various districts of the cell.
He must know the structure and function of mitochondria, he must know how to connect the processes of cellular respiration with the various districts of the mitochondrion and understand the function of cellular respiration within the energy metabolism of the cell.
They must demonstrate that they have learned and know how to relate the mechanisms of the cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and the apoptotic process to each other. He must be able to apply the meiosis scheme to spermatogenesis and ovogenesis and distinguish similarities and differences between these processes. He must apply the knowledge on the structure and physiology of gametes to the fertilization process.
He must know how to apply the basic knowledge of classical genetics to the hereditary transmission of characteristics. He must be able to solve simple problems concerning the inherited traits applied to some human pathologies.
He must be able to recognize a human karyotype and relate it to the most evident alterations in the number and structure of chromosomes; must be able to assess the severity of the various pathologies that are proposed during lectures.
Finally, he must identify and discriminate the various types of mutation, recognize their possible origin and determine their consequences.
At the end of the training phase, students will be able to create connections and relate the various cellular functions studied, whose knowledge is necessary to deal with the other disciplines of the Biotechnology degree.