General Pathology: basic principles.
Cellular adaptations of growth and differentiation:
Cell injury and cell death:
• Causes of cell injury, mechanisms of cell injury, reversible and irreversible cell injury,
• Morphology of cell injury and necrosis.
• Example of Cell injury and necrosis:
• Ischemic and hypoxic injury
• Chemical injury
• Apoptosis, causes of apoptosis, biochemical features of apoptosis, mechanism of apoptosis, example of apoptosis
Subcellular responses to injury:
• Intracellular accumulation:
• Lipids: steatosis and fatty changes.
• Cholesterol and cholesterol esters: Atherosclerosis, Xantomas
• Glycogen and glycogenoses
• Proteins: reabsorption in proximal renal tubules, active synthesis and accumulation in ER, defects in protein fold
• Pigments: anthracosis and coal worker’s pneumoconiosis,
• Hemosiderin and hemosiderosis
The host response to injury and general features of inflammation.
The acute inflammatory response and causes. Vascular changes (changes in vascular flow and caliber increased vascular permeability) and cellular events (leukocyte extravasation and transmigration, chemotaxis, leukocytes activation, phagocytosis)
• Exudate and morphologic patterns of acute inflammation
• Chemical mediators of inflammation (vasoactive amines, plasma proteins, complement system, Kinin system clotting system, arachidonic acid metabolites, platelet-activating factor, cytokines and chemokines, nitric oxide, lysosomal constituents of leukocytes, oxygen-derived free radicals)
• Outcomes of acute inflammation
Chronic inflammation: causes of chronic inflammation, morphologic features, cell of chronic inflammation, granulomatous inflammation
Polarization of macrophages M1 and M2
Regeneration, healing and fibrosis. Repair by healing, scar formation and fibrosis
• Cutaneous wound healing
• Adaptive Immunity system: general features
• Cell and tissue of the adaptive system: T Lymphocytes, B Lymphocytes, Macrophages, Dendritic cells and Natural Killer cells.
• APC cells
• Maturation, activation and regulation of lymphocytes
• Anatomy and functions of lymphoid tissue (primary and secondary lymphoid organs)
• Pathways and mechanisms of lymphocytes recirculation and homing
• Antibodies and antigens
• Antigen recognition: structure of antigen receptors and development of immunological specificity
• Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
• Antigen processing and presentation to lymphocytes
• Effector mechanisms of Cell-mediated Immunity
• Effector mechanisms of humoral Immunity