Based on the syntactic structures introduced in part A, we will gradually introduce the fundamental notions of compositional semantics, which determines the meaning of complex expressions on the basis of the meaning of the words and of the way in which they are syntactically combined. In detail, we will discuss the following topics, in the order indicated:
i) General notions: truth conditions. The notion of model. The principle of compositionality.
ii) Predicates and their arguments. The lambda notation. Semantic types.
iii) Elements of event semantics.
iv) The semantics of common nouns: count vs. mass nouns.
v) Adjectival modifiers.
vi) Definite descriptions.
vii) Quantification: the relational view. Generalized quantifiers.
viii) General properties of quantifiers.
ix) Scope assignment
xi) Scope ambiguities. Binding of anaphors and pronouns.
xii) The intensional dimension. Intensional types.
xiii) Propositional attitudes. Modal bases.
xiv) Elements of modality. Indices of evaluation.
xv) Indexicals and the kaplanian context
xvi) Towards dynamic semantics: context update in Stalnaker (1978).
xvii) Non-at-issue meanings