CYTOLOGY. 1) The cell as the organization unit of all organisms. Shape and dimensions of the cells. General organization of the cell. 2) Covalent bonds and interactions. Polar and non polar molecules. Water properties. 3) A mention of the chemical and physical laws of the reactions. The role of the enzymes in the biological reactions. 4) Macromolecules: proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates. General characteristics and formation mechanisms. 5) From DNA to proteins. What is a gene. Transcription and translation mechanisms. Control of transcription. 6) RNAs: characteristics, functions and mechanisms of mRNA, tRNA and rRNA formation. 7) DNA structure and replication mechanism. 8) Structure and function of cellular membranes. Lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in the membrane structure. The passage across the membranes: diffusion and active transport. 9) Compartments in the eukaryotic cell: morphological and functional characteristics of nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and peroxisomes. 10) Principal co- and post-translational modifications. Disulphide bridges. N- and O-glycosilation. Sorting of proteins in different cell compartments. Secretory pathway. Vesicular trafficking. 11) From DNA to chromatin: role of histones in the nucleosomes and chromatin fibrils formation. 12) Cell cycle and mitosis. 13) Mitochondrion: general structure and function. 14) Cytoskeleton and cellular motility. Motility and shape of the cell: actin and tubulin and dynamics of their assembly. The intermediate filaments. The motor proteins myosin, dynein, kinesin and the related mechanisms. 15) Cell-cell communication: hormones, receptors and transduction mechanisms. 16) Cells integration to form tissues: cell-cell adhesion (tight junctions, adherens junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions), extracellular matrix, cell-matrix adhesion (hemidesmosomes, focal junctions).
HISTOLOGY. 1) Cellular populations and their differentiation. A mention on cultured cells. 2) Epithelia and connective tissues: general characteristics. Lining and glandular epithelia. Lining epithelia classification. Sensorial epithelia: generalities. Glandular epithelia. Esocrine glands and modality of secretion. Endocrine glands. 3) Connective tissues: general organization. Connective tissue proper. 4) Cartilage hyaline, elastic and fibrocartilage. 5) Compact and spongy bone. Direct and indirect ossification. 6) Blood and lymph. 7) Haemopoiesis and general characteristics of lymphatic system. Bone marrow. Spleen. 8) Digestive tract and principal accessory digestive organs. Liver and pancreas. 9) Muscle tissue. Skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle. 10) Nervous tissue. Neurons and glial cells. 11) Mention on the endocrine system.