Introduction to Speech Sciences. A short history of Linguistics. Phonetics, phonology, morphology. Syntax, semantics. Genetic, typological, areal classification.
DETAILED STUDY PLAN
Fundamentals of linguistics: basic notions (Saussure and the following dichotomies: langue/parole, signifiant/signifié. Generative vs. functional approaches to grammar. Language universals. Linguistic competence vs. linguistic performance. Creativity and recursivity. Descriptive grammar vs. prescriptive grammar. Speech and writing). Structure of language: the domains of phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics.
Phonetics. Speech production. Articulation, coarticulation and prosody. Articulatory, acoustic and auditory phonetics. Phonetic transcription. Classification of phones: vowels, consonants, diphthongs, consonant clusters. Prosody. The difference between phonetics and phonology. Phonology: phonemes and allophones. Minimal pairs. Syllable structure. Phonological processes. Phonotactis.
Morphology: the internal structure of words. Definition of words: simple words vs. complex words. Classification of Morphemes: free morpheme vs. bound morphemes, allomorphs, functional morpheme vs. content morpheme. Affixes (prefixes, suffixes, infixes, circumfixes). Morphological analysis. Word composition. Formation of compounds (endocentric, exocentric, copulative). Grammatical categories (gender, person, number, tense).
Syntax: basic concepts such as phrase, head, trees, valency theory,
constituent structure, syntactic relations, arguments and adjuncts, obligatory vs.
optional arguments, thematic roles. Agreement.
Semantics: word meaning (denotation, connotation), relationships among words
(e.g. synonymy, antonyms, polysemy, homophony.), deixis.
Pragmatics (speech act theory, implicatures, Paul Grice's cooperative principle and
Language classification: genetic, typological, and areal classification. Language
contact. Linguistic typology: morphology and word order typology. Absolute and
Linguistic change and variation.