I Financial operations in a riskless framework
I.1 Fundamental quantities
First examples: elementary financial operations, composite financial operations, simple interest rates, compound interest rates, exponential law. Fundamental definitions: factors, rates e yields, instantaneous rate, financial operations. Two fundamental bond types: zero coupon bond and fixed rate coupon bond.
I.2 Exponential law
Exponential law as financial equivalence. Equivalent compound rates and yields. Value of a financial operation under exponential law: fair operations. Functional properties of the exponential law. Decomposition of financial operations.
I.3 Annuities and mortgages
Preliminary definitions. Present value of a annuity with constant instalment: (immediate) annuity with duration m, perpetuity, (immediate) annuity with duration m and payments in advance, perpetuity with payments in advance, deferred annuities. Fractional annuities. Dynamics of annuities: annuity with constant instalment, annuity with constant instalment and payments in advance, annuity with variable instalments, annuity with variable instalments and payments in advance, annuity with constant balance share. Mortgages: fixed rate (French) mortgage, fixed rate mortgage with payments in advance (German mortgage), mortgage with constant balance share, mortgages with initial interest-only instalments, mortgage with one-shot balance repayment, mortgages with fractional instalment.
I.4 Internal rate of return of a financial operation
The internal rate problem. The case of periodical payments: Newton’s method. Non-periodical payments.
I.5 Theory of financial equivalence
The value function in a spot contract. The value function in a forward contract: time-uniformity property. Discount and capitalisation factors: time-homogeneity property, the spot-forward consistency assumption, the separation property. Rates and yields with respect to a finite horizon: equivalent rates. Instantaneous rate: time-homogeneous laws, separable laws. Yield to maturity: equivalent yields. Linear and hyperbolic laws: the linear law (rational discount), the hyperbolic law (commercial law). Linearity of present value: value of a financial operation in an arbitrary point of time, fairness, internal rate of return with respect to a given value.
II Financial operations and market structure
II.1 Value function and market prices
Market assumptions: frictionless, competitive, no arbitrage. Unit zero coupon bonds. General zero coupon bonds. Portfolios of zero coupon bonds with different maturities. Forward contracts. Implied rates.
II.2 The term structure of interest rates
Spot term structures. Implied term structures. Term structure with respect to a term set: discrete sets, continuous terms, discrete sets with continuous underlying model. Internal rate of return and par yield of fixed rate bonds and mortgages.
II.3 Time indexes and value sensitivity indexes
Time indexes: maturity e time to maturity, mean time to maturity, duration, flat yield curve duration, flat yield curve duration of annuities, flat yield curve duration of fixed rate bonds, second order moments, duration e time-dispersion of portfolios. Value sensitivity indexes: semielasticity, elasticity, convexity, relative convexity.
II.4 Floating rate contracts
Floating rate zero coupon bonds and floating coupons. Floating rate notes. Adjustable rate mortgages. Duration of floating rates contracts. Interest rate swaps. Swap rates e zero coupon swap rates.
II.5 Term structure evolution (optional)
Term structure evolution under certainty assumption. Expectation assumptions: pure expectations assumption, liquidity preference assumption, market segmentation assumption, preferred habitat assumption.