TOPIC OF THE COURSE: Present Moral Philosophy – Important Approaches, Collective Responsibility
CONTENTS: The course will provide an introduction at an elevated level to metaethics and to criteriological or normative ethics, i.e. that part of ethics which seeks to elaborate moral principles; in addition, the course enlarges upon a particular topic which is one ob the bases of metaethics, viz. theory of action. In the metaethical part various approaches, in competition with each other, about the sources of morality will be discussed: realist objectivism (which assumes moral principles independent of human preferences and thoughts) and a rational-altruistic approach (which is based on rational and altruistic motives) as well as a moral psychological study (types of morals depening on gender). In the criteriological / normative part instead the following systems of moral principles will be discussed: consequentialism – in particular utilitarianism –, virtue ethics, communitarianism and effective altruism. Finally, a separate but connected part is dedicated to action theory as one of the bases of moral philosophy, with topics like: characterstics of actions and intentions, various types of intention, folk-psychology of intentionality and its philosophical importance, the role of rationality, mental causation, deviant realisations of intentions, weakness of will. – In the course, among others, texts of the following authors will be discussed: Aguilar, Arpaly, Brandt, Dennett, Gilligan, Holton, Kim, Knobe, MacAskill, Pacherie, Parfit, Sandel, Sidgwick, Sripada, Shafer-Landau e Michael Smith.