Theoretical and practical aspects of Classical Thermodynamics
Exercises of classical thermodynamics
- Equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems, basic concepts.
- Boyle's, Charles’s, Gay Lussac’s and Dalton's laws.
- State equations. Ideal and real gasses behaviour. Van der Walls and virial equations.
- Kinetic theory of gases. Dependence of pressure and temperature from molecular motion.
- The equipartition theorem for monoatomic and polyatomic molecules.
- The concept of specific heat and thermal capacity.
- The Botzmann distribution law.
- The dynamics of microscopic systems motions.
- The exchange of energy between molecular systems and environment.
- The functions of state concept.
- The first law of thermodynamics, work and heat. - The function of state: enthalpy.
- The thermal capacity at constant pressure and volume.
- Principles of Thermochemistry, Hess's law and Kirchhoff's law.
- The concept of spontaneous process.
- Entropy, statistic and thermodynamic definition.
- The Carnot cycle. The concept of thermodynamic efficiency. The second principle of thermodynamics.
- Entropy changes in thermodynamic processes.
- The Third Law of Thermodynamics.
- The Gibbs function and its dependence on physical potential i.e. pressure and temperature.
- The concept of chemical potential.
- The thermodynamic derivation of the chemical equilibrium law.
- The dependence of the chemical equilibrium constants on temperature. The Gibbs-Helmholtz’s vant'Hoff’s laws.
- Clapeyron’s and Clausius-Clapeyron’s equations.
- Gibbs’ phase rule.
Enthalpy and chemical transformations. Exo and endo-enthalpy processes, definition of Standard Enthalpy, Hess’s law, process enthalpy classification, Born-Haber Cycles, practical applications.
The Chemical Potential. The fundamental equation of thermodynamics.
Physical transformations of pure substances. Phase diagrams. Thermodynamic aspects of phase transistions. Clapeyron and Clausius-Clapeyron Equations.
Simple mixtures. The thermodynamic description of mixtures. Partial molar quantities. The chemical potential of liquids. Raoult law. The properties of solutions. Colligative properties. Phase diagrams of binary systems. Activities