- General Pathology
Introduction to Pathology.
Students must learn basic concepts with reference to health and disease and study in depth the underlying causes (etiology) ad mechanisms (pathogenesis) leading to disease. Genetic and environmental causes of disease.
Students must learn pathogenetic mechanisms of inflammation and its relationship with immune response.
Acute inflammation: vascular changes and exudate formation. Chemical mediators of inflammation. Cellular events: leukocyte migration. Leukocyte activation and phagocytosis.
Chronic inflammation: non-granulomatous and granulomatous inflammation.
Students must learnbiochemical-molecular mechanisms leading to tumor formation and development. General characteristics of tumor cells growth. Metastasis. Nomenclature. Molecular basis of cancer: protooncogenes, oncogenes and antioncogenes. Carcinogenic agents: chemical, radiation and viral carcinogenesis. Familial cancers. Host defense against tumors: role of immunity and hormones. Paraneoplastic syndromes. Epidemiology and risk factors. Grading and staging of cancer. Tumor antigens.
Cell pathology and cell death.
The student must study the main regressive processes of the cell and of the extracellular matrix. The degenerative processes of the cells and the morphological, functional and biochemical alterations of the organelles: a) intracellular accumulation of lipids, proteins, glycogen and pigments; b) extracellular accumulation: amyloidosis. Hypertrophy and hypotrophy. Reversible cell damage and cell death: apoptosis and necrosis; molecular mechanisms involved
Students must learn causes and pathogenetic mechanisms leading to organ disorders. Blood pathophysiology. Hyperthermia and fever. Causes and pathogenesis of hemodynamic disorders: hyperemia, hemorrhage, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, embolism, stroke and shock. Liver, kidney and lung disorders. Autoimmune, immunodeficiency and hypersensitivity reactions (type I, II, II and IV).
Atherosclerosis. Risk factors.Diabetes. Alcholism. Cirrhosis. Malabsorption.
Basic concepts. Fundamental concepts in drug absorption, distribution and elimination. Mechanism of drug action (classification of receptors and drug effects). The relationship between drug concentration and effect. Pharmacokinetic parameters. Causes of variability in human drug response. The adjustment of dosage based on age, weight and renal function, kinetics consequence of drug interactions. Pharmacogenetics and adverse drug reactions (ADR). Factors which affect therapeutic outcome: drug-drug interactions, genetic factors. Phytotheraphy/food and drugs interaction. Constipation and obesity theraphy.