Chemistry and biochemistry
Atomic structure. Periodic table of the elements. Electronegativity. Chemical bonds. Chemical reactions. Chemical equilibrium. Oxidation-reduction reactions. Mole definition. Exothermic and endothermic reactions. Catalysis. Solutions. Concentrations of solutions. Acids and bases. pH and pOH. Buffers.
Main classes of organic compounds and their functional groups: alkanes, alkenes, aromatic compounds, alcohols and thiols, ethers, amines, aldehydes and ketone, carboxylic acids, esters, amides.
The biological macromolecules: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates: classification(monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides), structure and function. Proteins: classification, structure and function. Aminoacid structure. The acid-base properties of aminoacids. The peptide bonding. Lipids: classification (triglycerides, phospholipids, glycolipids, steroids), structure and function. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA, structure and function. Nucleotides. Hydrosoluble and liposoluble vitamins.
Metabolism, catabolism and anabolism. Energy requirements of cells and organisms. Exergonic and endergonic reactions. Oxidation-reduction reactions of biological interest. Role of oxygen and oxygen transport proteins. Role of ATP in metabolism. Role and characteristic of enzyme. Coenzyme role. Carbohydrate metabolism. Metabolic pathways of glucose. Post-glycolysis processes in aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Gluconeogenesis. Glycogen synthesis. Fatty acids metabolism: activation and transfer into the mitochondria, beta-oxidation. Protein synthesis, degradation and urea cycle. Krebs cycle, electron transport chains, oxidative phosphorylation.
Models of cellular organization: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The plasma membrane: molecular organization of the membrane; dynamic functions of the membranes.
The nucleus and nuclear envelope. The molecular organization of chromatin. The nucleolus.
The smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes: biogenesis and function.
The Golgi apparatus: structure and function. Lysosomes and peroxisomes. Mitochondria: morphology, biogenesis and their role in energy metabolism.The cytoskeleton and the cell movement. Microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments. The centrioles. Extracellular matrix and cell junctions. Transcription and maturation of RNA. The genetic code. The synthesis of proteins. The fate of post-translational protein.The cell cycle. The replication of genetic material: molecular mechanism and enzyme. Mitosis. The reproduction of living organisms. Sexual reproduction. Meiosis, gametogenesis and fertilization. Evolution and species concept.
Concepts of hereditary disease, congenital disease and genetic disease. Genetic counseling. Pattern of single-gene inheritance: dominant and recessive autosomal inheritance, dominant and recessive X-linked inheritance. Structure and function of chromosomes. Abnormalities of chromosome number and structure. Karyotype technique. Structure and function of genes. Genetic variations, polymorphisms and mutations: nucleotide substitutions, deletions and insertions. Genetic basis of cancer.