The course aims at providing a basic but rigorous comprehension of of Kant’s thought, by a careful reading of the Prolegomena, and by examining the epistemological issues analysed in the book, and in Kant’s work. We shall examine with particular care the alternative between absolute idealism and critical realism, focussing on Kant’s transcendental type of idealism. Hence we will go over to the realist ideas of Russell in 1912 (The Problems of Philosophy) and 1914 and beyond (reading Mysticism and Logic). We will finally consider Russell’s neutral monism in The Analysis of the Mind )1921). But the comparison with Kant will be constant all through the course, in order to appreciate the limits of both realist and idealist proposals, and their nuances.