Clinical pharmacology: General concept of 'drug': phases of drug testing.
Pharmacokinetics: absorption, metabolism distribution and elimination of drugs. Main pharmacokinetic parameters and their clinical significance. General notions of pharmacodynamics: membrane and intracellular receptors; concept of signal transduction. Desirable events and undesirable events of the action of a drug; notion of adverse reaction (ADR) and complication; concept of idiosyncrasy reaction; mention of interactions between drugs and their consequences (antagonism, synergy, potentiation). Immune based adverse reactions: general concept of immune reaction and the mechanism of response formation. Pharmacovigilance. Pharmacogenetics.
Bacterial cell and Gram staining. Bacterial pathogenicity and host defences. Antibiotic chemotherapy.
Virus structure and multiplication cycle. Acute, latent, persistent, chronic, slow, oncogenic viral infections.
2. CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY
Main infections of the respiratory system with a focus on tuberculosis and influenza.
General Pathology: General Etiology: Genetic and Environmental Causes. Protection against micro-organisms: natural barriers, immune system cells and tissues, innate immunity, specific immunity (active and passive). Elements of immune-based diseases. Immunohaematology: group-ematics antigens and antibodies, transfusion compatibility. Cell pathology: growth alterations, accumulation pathologies, cell death. Inflammation: angioflogous (acute inflammation) (changes in microcirculation, exudate formation and mediators), histoflogous (chronic inflammation) (interstitial and granulomatous), acute phase response. Cancer: classification and nomenclature; protoncogéni, oncogéni and tumour suppressor genes; invasiveness and metastases; environmental carcinogenesis and hereditary substrate tumours; role of immune system; hints of tumour epidemiology and risk factors; grading and staging.
Introduction to pathological anatomy (historical notes, general concepts and main methods of pathological anatomy);
Oral pathology: malformations (macroglossia, ankyloglossia, cleft lipsis and cleft palate), non-infectious inflammation, infections, tumours;
Pathology of the larynx and pharynx: acute and chronic inflammations, pathologies of the vocal cords (polyps and cord nodules, Reinke's edema, epidermal and sulcusglottis cysts, retention cysts), stenosis and laryngeal paralysis, tumours;
Salivary glands pathology: scialoadenosis, obstructive-logistic diseases, tumours;
Pathology of the ear: malformations (microtia, "loop" ear, atresia auris), ear plugs, foreign bodies, otohaematoma, infections (bacterial, viral and mycosis), dermatological diseases (atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, contact dermatitis), otosclerosis, paralysis of the facial nerve, Ménière's disease, tumors;
Central nervous system pathology: neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), endocranial edema and hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases (ischaemia, haemorrhage), meningitis, brain tumors.